How to reference an internet source?

This article shows you what short documents and bibliography entries look like.

Printed and online sources are now recorded together in the bibliography. Therefore the referencing of URL sources is basically the same as for printed sources!

The references look like this:

a) footnotes: (only use short references - for all types of references! Do not enter URL information there!)

1 Cf. Gertler 2011b, p. 18

2 Cf. Gertler 2011a


  • Since a URL source does not know page numbers (except: PDF), no page number can be specified in the footnote for them.
  • If you set in-text short references instead of footnotes, the short documents appear in parentheses, before the final point and under lower case of the cf. link, as implemented in this note: (cf. Gertler 2011b: 18).
  • Why do footnotes usually contain "..., p. 18", but in the case of in-text referencing "...: 18"? The footnotes follow the output form of APA, where ", S." precedes the page number; in-text references often follow Harvard in business and other degree programmes, where only a colon in the short document refers to the subsequent page number.
  • Basic structure of short references: Last name of the author or editor / year of publication / page number(s) of the quoted text area

b) the bibliography: (here must be exact, directly findable information, not only the URL to the start page, but always to the detail page - and for books also the edition - from 2nd edition onward. - and place of publication: name of publisher!)

Gertler, M. (2011a):Journalistische Wirklichkeitsangebote. Humanistic Communication Research Institute. Available at: [accessed 22 October 2014].

Gertler, M. (2011b): Zwischen Ökonomie und Ethik: Zur Qualität in Theorie und Praxis des Journalismus. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.


  • Principle structure of entries in the source directory: Surname, first name of the author or publisher / year of publication / title of publication / if applicable "in:" if published in an anthology or a journal, followed by publisher's name and title of the publication as well as page area of the contribution / if applicable edition (only from 2nd edition) / place of publication: publisher's name or URL and retrieval date or DOI

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    For use in your own scientific work!

    Output styles for Zotero and other reference managers:

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