Which sources are considered worth quoting? May I quote from "Spiegel" or "Page" etc.?

Since scientific working can only be scientific if one relies on scientific sources, applies:

Public journals and other non-scientific literature are in principle not worth quoting; they cannot be used for scientific argumentation. Journalistic products and entertainment products are logically not scientific products.

Incidentally, Wikipedia is also one of the non-scientific sources, as no scientific responsibility is guaranteed there.


  • Non-scientific literature can be referenced to a limited extent in the "context of discovery" (introduction with problem, objective and research question, etc.), if necessary also selectively in the main part for the mere presentation of published opinions / information. (...but not to use them for scientific reasoning!)
  • Non-scientific literature can be referenced if (only) the unedited statement of a scientist has been published there (e.g. by interview or in the form of a contribution under his own name.
  • Non-scientific literature must be referenced if it itself is the subject of investigation.

Professionally / technically relevant publications of organisations and associations (especially statistics, annual reports, statements) can of course be quoted - if the objectives of your scientific work are appropriate.


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